单反光圈与景深的关系

光圈是拍摄出魔法般照片的最关键的因素之一。什么是光圈呢?简单地说——光圈就是“拍摄时镜头打开的大小。”

当你按下相机上的快门时,会有一个孔被打开以使传感器捕捉进入相机的光线(译者注:光圈实际是一直打开的,在按下快门时会收缩至设定值)。你设置的光圈值就影响着这个孔打开的大小。孔开的越大,就会有越多的光线进来,孔开的越小,进入的光线就越少。

光圈是以“f/”标注的。你会经常在摄影教程中看到f/值,比如f/2.8、f/4、f/5.6、f/22等等。改变一次f/值,镜头中开孔的大小会变为当前大小的一倍或一半,进光量也随之增加一倍或减少一半。

摄影初学者经常会把光圈搞混的一个原因是,f/的数字越小,则表示光圈越大(进光量越多),反之f/数字越大,则光圈越小。所以f/2.8光圈比f/22光圈要大。一定不要搞混了。

景深与光圈

改变光圈会对拍摄造成众多影响,其中最值得注意的就是景深问题。

景深(DOF)是指照片中在对焦平面前后画面清晰的部分。大景深意味着照片无论远近静物大部分都是清晰的(比如用f/22光圈拍摄的照片中前后景都非常清晰)。

小(或浅)景深意味着照片中只有一部分画面是清晰的,其他画面都被虚化掉了。

光圈对景深起着重要的作用。大光圈(小f/值)会减少景深,小光圈(大f/值)增加景深。

第一次看到这些可能会使你有些混乱,不过我记住这一点的方法是:小f/值等于小景深,大f/值等于大景深。

简单来说就是大光圈小景深,小光圈大景深。

不同的摄影题材需要不同的景深

例如在大部分风光摄影中,你会看到摄影师多选择小光圈。这样可以保证从前景到远处地平线的所有静物都是清晰的。

另一方面,在人像摄影中,利用光圈可以很容易地使模特清晰而背景被虚化,这样可以突出模特,使其他东西不会分散观众的注意力。此时你要选择大光圈来保证小景深。

微距摄影师倾倾向于使用大光圈,保证拍摄主体可以抓住观众的全部注意力,而把其他内容统统忽略掉。

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