单反焦距与快门的关系

摄影新手必学快门是什么?

有时我们会发现照片因手震而模糊,又或看到一些有趣的摄影效果,如马路光轨、天空星轨、特别的光涂鸦等,原来全与相机快门有关。

什么是快门?

相机快门跟光圈一样,同样是控制光线进入相机的元件,而快门是以时间来控制入光量。快门其实是在感光元件/菲林前的一道「帘」,其开放时候愈长,相机进的光就愈多。

快门速度

快门打开后,光线就会穿过光圈射进相机的感光元件。所谓「快门速度」,其实是代表光线获准进入相机的时间有多长。「快门速度」和「曝光时间」所指的其实都是同一样东西,快门速度愈快,代表曝光时间愈短,快门速度愈慢,代表曝光时间愈长。

现代相机的快门速度,已经可以控制至 1/8000 秒之短。而快门速度和进入相机的光量有直接关系,当曝光时间增加一倍,进入相机的光量亦增加一倍。

高速快门与慢速快门的应用

快门对一张照片最直接的影响就是曝光,快门速度慢,进光量提高,相同光圈ISO条件下,画面会更光亮,反之亦然。除此以外,就是透过改变快门速度,来表现「冻结」或是制造「动态模糊」。

慢快门最常见的用法,例如拍摄瀑布或是夜景,制造独特的效果。正常状况下,我们都会尽量避免使用慢快门,来防止因手震而出现的动态模糊。

摄影新手必学快门是什么?

高速快门应用:飘浮效果 (Jim Legans, Jr——www.fsbus.com)

摄影新手必学快门是什么?
慢快门应用:瀑布模糊

安全快门

甚么是「安全快门」呢?在理论上,它能够保証我们手持相机拍摄时,不会因为手震而影响拍摄质素。

这个安全快门其实不需要什么高深的数学算式,我们只要记住「 1/所使用的镜头焦距」大概就是安全快门了。

简单来说即当你使用50mm焦距镜头时,你所需要的快门速度高于1/50,这样便可以避免拍出来有机会因手震而造成的影像模糊。

摄影新手必学快门是什么?

留意显示屏左上方的两组数字,125是指 1/125 秒的快门速度,而 F2.8 则是光圈值。

保持照片清晰的技巧不外乎(1)尽量保持双手稳定、(2)使用三脚架、(3)或增加快门速度。但要知道,当你增加快门速度,进入相机的光线就会变少,那你就要靠曝光三角里的另外两个设定来补救了。

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